Navigating Construction Projects with Incomplete Building Services Design: Real-world Solutions Wanted 🛠️
Here is my list of reasons why so often we have incomplete Building Services Design before the project starts construction: Incomplete Building Services Design (BSD) before the commencement of construction can arise from a myriad of factors, each with its own set of complexities. Here are several common reasons: Insufficient or Unrealistic Timelines: The specifics […]
Mastering 3-Axis Rotation: Transform Revit Face-Based Families with Tiltable Geometry
The Exchange Information Requirements (EIR) term introduced by BS EN 19650 replaces the PAS 1192 term Employer Information Requirements (EIR) on all projects where BS EN ISO 19650 compliance is required. As the AEC industry transitions from PAS 1192 to the BS EN 19650 Framework, the term Exchange Information Requirements (EIR) may cause some confusion. […]
In any office building, ensuring the safety and well-being of employees and visitors is of paramount importance. Emergency lighting plays a vital role in providing illumination during power outages or emergency situations, aiding in the safe evacuation of occupants. However, when it comes to toilet cubicles in office buildings, there may be some confusion regarding […]
execution of workflow in the correct sequence managed by the competent project team members working together to achieve common, albeit often multifaceted goal. Coordination often involves more than one party who interacts to reach a common goal. The process is characterised by transforming viewpoints beyond narrow self-interest into broader community-wide interests and actions.  Coordination is […]
That part of the earth fault loop impedance which is external to the circuit under consideration. For the supply cable it will be the impedance external to the installation. For other circuits, it is the sum of the impedance of the circuits on the supply side of the circuit under consideration and the impedance external […]
Z2 – That part of the earth fault loop impedance which comprises the impedance under earth fault conditions of the circuit protective conductor (cpc) of the circuit under consideration.
Z1 – That part of the earth fault loop impedance which comprises the impedance under earth fault conditions of the line conductor of the circuit under consideration.
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is used to maintain the supply to an essential service duringmains supply outages. On loss ofmains supply,a storage device in the UPS (battery) continues to power the connected load.
Uo Nominal line voltage to earth. Assumed to be 230 V for grid connected systems.