image illustrating Visual Alarm Devices (VADs)

Overview Visual Alarm Devices (VADs) Welcome to our guide on Visual Alarm Devices (VADs). Sourced from leading standards and guidelines, including the CoP-0001 Loss Prevention Code of Practice, Approved Document M vol 2, the BS5839 Guide, FIA Guidance, and Approved Document B – Fire Safety, this guide aims to deliver a thorough understanding of VADs […]

zone indicator

part of indicating equipment which visually indicates the zone of origin of a alarm of fire or faultwarning BS 4422 2005 Zone Indicator in Fire Alarm Systems The zone indicator is a crucial element in fire alarm systems, particularly in larger buildings or complexes where pinpointing the exact location of a fire or fault is […]

jet reaction

Illustration depicting the concept of jet reaction in firefighting and sprinkler systems. The image should feature a split scene_ on one side, a firef

nozzle reactionforce acting in the opposite direction to the water stream leaving the nozzle BS 4422 2005 “Jet reaction,” also known as “nozzle reaction,” is a fundamental concept in fluid dynamics and is particularly important in the context of firefighting equipment. It refers to the force that acts in the opposite direction to the water […]


A dynamic illustration showing three different types of water jets used in firefighting_ a continuous stream, a water spray, and a water fog (mist)

extinguishing medium, usually water, leaving a nozzle as a continuous stream, water spray, or waterfog (mist) BS 4422 2005 Each of these methods has its own advantages and is chosen based on the nature of the fire, the environment, and the specific goals of the firefighting effort (such as direct extinguishing, creating firebreaks, or cooling). […]

Emergency Voice Communication System (EVCS)

An Emergency Voice Communication System (EVCS) or (EVC) is a fixed, monitored and maintained, bidirectional, full duplex voice communication system (Refuge system) designed to facilitate the orderly evacuation of disabled or mobility-impaired individuals and to improve the communication of firefighters during emergencies. Intended uses for an EVCS In the early stages of evacuation, before the […]