Cyber-Physical Systems

Systems that include integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes with feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa4. An example of a Cyber-Physical System is a Digital Twin, where a building has a virtual model that is populated by sensor data from that building and uses computation to alter the state of […]


In environmental justice, ecocide is the criminalised activity of substantially harming or destroying ecosystems in their entirety or by harming individual species. At time of writing, 10 countries have criminalised ecocide, but the effectiveness of these laws depends on the ability and willingness to enforce them. [1] [1] Gürdür Broo, D., Lamb, K., Juvenile Ehwi, […]


It is best to define “data” in the context of “information”. Data is the evidence, while information provides context for that evidence. Data is a very complex term to define because it does not exist independently of the ideas, instruments, practices, context, and knowledge used to generate, process, and analyse it. However, many accept that […]


the structures that emphasize, organise and enable social functions. Individual units of infrastructure are known as assets. It is sometimes subcategorised into economic infrastructure, the networks of built assets that enable the creation of value like energy, ICT and water, and social infrastructure, the assets that enable social services and connections, such as transport networks, […]

Internet of Things (IoT)

This phrase refers to networked infrastructures that interconnect physical objects and allow for the management of the data they generate. A typical example of IoT is a home energy monitor connected to an app on mobile phone, or a voice-activated system such as Alexa or Google Home that allows the user to play music or […]

Contractor’s proposals (CP)

Contractor’s proposals (CP) in AEC industry refer to documentation prepared by tenderers for design and build projects or on a traditional contract where the bidder is to design specific parts of the works in response to employers’ requirements. The Employer’s Requirements (ER’s) are often referred to as Employer Information Requirements (EIR) referencing the superseded PAS […]


In construction, to rationalise is to attempt to remove, explain or justify irrational quantities, processes or systems or else adjust unreasonable design decisions by employing logic or reason, (behaviour, attitude), even if these are not appropriate.

System of systems

A system of systems is a collection of many different systems, each with its own characteristics. [1] System theory assumes that certain underlying concepts and principles are applicable to different areas, although each field has developed for itself. The main assumption of system theory is that complex systems consist of several smaller systems, and that […]

systems thinking

System thinking is an approach to integration based on the idea that each component or part of a system acts differently when isolated from its environment and other parts of the system. Although the individual systems that make up the systems themselves can be independent and very different, their interactions can reveal and deliver important […]

system of insight

A system of insights can helps your company make decisions, and it is designed to be part of business decision-making process. It involves gather data, use it, find relationships and patterns, apply a solid analytical framework, report on automation and make decisions. [1] S. Jain, “System of Insight Market worth $ 3.4 billion by 2025 […]