in relation to data and information – also linked to interoperability means that it is provided or made available in a format that can be accessed and used withoutrecourse to the software that generated it. Openness is the opposite of proprietary, whereinformation and data are in the generating software’s native format and may or may […]

open interoperability

the meaning and benefits: single procurement of information that can be relied upon over time, removing the need for it to be repeatedly re-procured; a ‘Golden Thread’ of information to provide statutory information in order to improve compliance, health and safety and zerocarbon targets; faster, more efficient and reliable decision making using reliable information; efficient […]

Model View Definition (MVD)

One or more specific information exchange requirements may necessitate the need for a model view definition (MVD). A machine-readable representation of MVDs is required when using them in software development. Filtering information in software tools can be done by using an MVD that is only dedicated to one information delivery model (IDM). An MVD can […]

Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)

conceptual data schema and exchange file format for building information modelling (BIM) data BS EN ISO 23387:2020 In general, IFC, or “Industry Foundation Classes”, is a standardized, digital description of the built environment, including buildings and civil infrastructure. It is an open, international standard (ISO 16739-1:2018), meant to be vendor-neutral, or agnostic, and usable across […]

The Centre for Digital Built Britain

The Centre for Digital Built Britain (CDBB) CDBB is a partnership between the University of Cambridge and The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). It is the custodian of HM Government’s Digital Built Britain, UK BIM, International BIM and National Digital Twinprogrammes.

Digital twin

“The digital twin is the virtual representation of a physical object or system across its life-cycle. It uses real-time data and other sources to enable learning, reasoning, and dynamically recalibrating for improved decision making.” [1] Digital twins are realistic digital representations of physical things [3] • A dynamic model of an asset, with the input of […]

National digital twin

An ecosystem of digital twins connected via securely shared data.

The Gemini Principles

Purpose: Must have clear purpose Public good Must be used to deliver genuine public benefit in perpetuity Value creation Must enable value creation and performance improvement Insight Must provide determinable insight into the built environment Trust: Must be trustworthy Security Must enable security and be secure itself Openness Must be as open as possible Quality […]


Building Information Modelling (BIM)[1] broadly describes the processes employed during digital information management related to a built asset such as a building, bridge, highway or tunnel. ISO 19650 outlines a framework for the management of information during the life cycle of a built asset using better information management. While the term ‘Building Information Modeling (BIM)’ […]

Construction Operation Building information exchange (COBie)

COBie is a non-proprietary data format for the publication of a subset of building information models (BIM) that focuses on delivering asset data rather than geometric information. It is formally defined as a subset of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC – the international standard for sharing and exchanging BIM data across various software applications), but […]