Digital twin

“The digital twin is the virtual representation of a physical object or system across its life-cycle. It uses real-time data and other sources to enable learning, reasoning, and dynamically recalibrating for improved decision making.” [1] Digital twins are realistic digital representations of physical things [3] • A dynamic model of an asset, with the input of […]


Building Information Modelling (BIM)[1] broadly describes the processes employed during digital information management related to a built asset such as a building, bridge, highway or tunnel. ISO 19650 outlines a framework for the management of information during the life cycle of a built asset using better information management. While the term ‘Building Information Modeling (BIM)’ […]


interacting objects organized to achieve one or more stated purpose [SOURCE: ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015, 4.1.46, modified — The words “combination of” at the beginninghave been removed; “elements” has been replaced by “objects”; Notes 1 to 3 to entry have been removed.] BS EN ISO 23387:2020


A system for naming and organizing a set of words or phrases, into groups that share similar qualities, used for organising information and primarily intended for browsing. In BIM contexts its classification of concepts and terminology according to a clear structure. The term “Taxonomy” comes from terms “Taxos”, ordering and “nomos”, rule. [1], Taxonomy is […]

System of systems

A system of systems is a collection of many different systems, each with its own characteristics. [1] System theory assumes that certain underlying concepts and principles are applicable to different areas, although each field has developed for itself. The main assumption of system theory is that complex systems consist of several smaller systems, and that […]

systems thinking

System thinking is an approach to integration based on the idea that each component or part of a system acts differently when isolated from its environment and other parts of the system. Although the individual systems that make up the systems themselves can be independent and very different, their interactions can reveal and deliver important […]

system of insight

A system of insights can helps your company make decisions, and it is designed to be part of business decision-making process. It involves gather data, use it, find relationships and patterns, apply a solid analytical framework, report on automation and make decisions. [1] S. Jain, “System of Insight Market worth $ 3.4 billion by 2025 […]

ubiquitous access

The modern era of IT has turned to ubiquitous access to all organizations and users. The vision is  to provide one “universal access,” i.e. access to all IT services, regardless of geographical location. This is one of the most important aspects of modern IT, and it is turning to the cloud to provide ubiquitous access […]

System of engagement

The System of Engagement is defined as a platform that manages supported digital engagement, of systems like Browsing, Web Chat, Messaging, videos (Facebook, WhatsApp, TEAMS, ZOOM, Signal, Slack, etc.), various apps like Project Management platforms (PROCORE, BIM360, Aconex, PlanGrid). It is also designed to grow and easily integrate additional APIs for customer engagement. This includes […]

change strategy

Concept of change strategy involves identifying objectives, formulating intervention concepts for change, forming and defining success parameters, and implementing strategies. This includes testing the effectiveness of the changes and their impact on the organisation’s performance. The cycles of small tests, combined with analysis of test results, integrate the learning generated throughout the process, which could […]